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Independent Adoptions | Adoption Law Center

Independent Adoptions

Independent adoptions often emerge naturally when a birth mother is pregnant and determines she is not able to raise the child. She may identify a friend or family member willing to adopt. Many birth mothers feel strongly that they do not want the child to be placed in foster care.  She would rather choose a family she knows that will love and care for the child. The biological mother typically surrenders her parental rights shortly after the birth.


Tennessee has a mandatory waiting period of 3 days after the baby is born before a Court can accept a surrender.  If the child is born on a Monday, the first possible day for a surrender would be Friday.  As a practical matter, it may take longer based on the schedule of the Court, attorneys, and parties involved, as well as the voluminous paperwork that must be completed.


The surrender of parental rights occurs in the Judge’s chambers.  The birth mother and her attorney meet privately with the Judge to ensure that the birth mother understands the rights that she is relinquishing and that she is making the decision of her own free will.  Then the adoptive parents and their attorney meet privately with the Judge to accept the surrender.


Once the surrender of parental rights is executed, your attorney will ask the Court to grant the prospective adoptive parents guardianship or partial guardianship of the child.  Guardianship allows them to access medical records and make medical decisions, apply for health insurance and other benefits, and care for the child.


In 2015, the time period for a birth parent to revoke the surrender of parental rights decreased from ten days to three days after the surrender.  The three-day period does not include weekends and holidays.  No reason is required for the revocation, and the child must be returned to the person entitled to custody prior to the surrender.


The biological father’s rights must also be terminated. This can be done through a waiver of interest, denial of paternity, surrender, or involuntary termination of parental rights. The birth mother will complete an affidavit regarding the identity of the birth father.  If the birth father’s identity is unknown, your attorney will discuss your options for how to proceed.


In an independent adoption, the parties may know each other and often choose to have an open adoption.  An open adoption is different for every family.  It may include an annual visit, exchanging pictures and letters, and/or phone calls.  If the birth parent prefers not to be contacted by the child or adoptive family, they can designate their preference in the Contact Veto Registration form in the surrender packet.


Independent adoptions occur when the child goes directly from the physical and legal custody of the birth parent to the physical and legal custody of the prospective adoptive parents without the involvement of an adoption agency or the foster care system.  A home study is required and the home study agency will provide supervision during the six-month waiting period mandated for non-relative adoptions.  The agency typically makes two or three additional visits during the period the child resides with the prospective adoptive family before the adoption is finalized.


Part of the surrender process includes collection of the birth parents’ social and medical history. Birth mothers may also be willing to sign an authorization to release medical records allowing the prospective adoptive parents access to prenatal records and other pertinent information.


The Adoption Law Center strongly advocates that birth parents receive counseling and independent legal representation, giving added support to the birth mother and added protection to the integrity of the adoption. 

Tennessee has strict laws concerning payments to birth mothers.  Funds must be limited to actual expenses and only for a limited period before and directly after the birth.  Funds should only be issued through your attorney’s trust account to ensure that there is a record of all payments and that your attorney has approved the legality of the expenditure.  All expenses will be disclosed to the court.


Call us today if you are considering independent adoption.  615-543-8640

We began our private, open adoption journey in April 2018. The Adoption Law Center, PLLC was our first and only call to interview attorneys. Jenny Hall is so knowledgeable and compassionate that she put my mind at ease at once over the phone. Without an agency involved, we had NO idea what we needed to do to move forward with the process. Jenny carefully explained everything to us and referred us to a great home study agency located nearby. We finalized our adoption just four days ago (May 2019, 6 mo old). The whole process was smooth. Jenny’s firm is fair to the birth/first parents throughout the process which was extremely important to us. We’re so grateful for Jenny and her staff!

Kinsey Emery

What to Expect

Home Study

Surrender or Termination of Parental Rights